WE all have duties, which we are responsible for in life, although some may not ascribe these responsibilities that term. We are responsible for the well-being of families and our own self-improvement. Many of us would say that we have a duty of service to our community or even to humanity as a whole. “Duty” is an important concept in Freemasonry and can be viewed or defined in two basic ways:
- a moral or legal obligation; a responsibility, commitment, or allegiance.
- a task or action that someone is required to perform.
The first definition speaks to a higher concept – an attitude of reverence or respect in the cause of fidelity. The second definition is more concrete and delineates a specific action one is required to perform. What duties do we owe in life, and do these duties circumscribe our personal Dharma?
What is Dharma?
Dharma is an integral concept in many eastern religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. In Hinduism, Dharma has been defined as a spiritual law, which governs the necessary conduct of each individual. While there is no direct, one-word translation in the English language, Dharma can be described as duty, morality, virtues, or calling.
Nothing is higher than Dharma. The weak overcomes the stronger by Dharma, as over a king. Truly that Dharma is the Truth (Satya); therefore, when a man speaks the Truth, they say, “He speaks the Dharma”; and if he speaks Dharma, they say, “He speaks the Truth!” For both are one. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 1.4.xiv
Dharma signifies behaviors that are in accord with Rta, (i.e., the order that upholds the universe). In the Vedic religion, Ṛta (ऋत, “order, rule; truth”) is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. Those ordinances, or life paths, which upholds Rta, are referred to as Dharma, and the action of the individual in relation to those ordinances is referred to as Karma. Ṛta – as an ethical principle – is linked with the notion of cosmic retribution.
A central concept of the Ṛig Veda (an important Hindu Scripture) is that created beings fulfill their true natures when they follow the path set for them by the ordinances of Ṛta, and failing to follow those ordinances was thought to be responsible for the appearance of various forms of calamity and suffering. Committing one’s actions to the governance of Ṛta, referred to as its “Dharma“, was therefore understood as imperative in ensuring one’s own well-being. Karma (lit., “action”) refers to the works one performs, which can occur either in congruence with or in opposition to Dharma – and thus, to Ṛta – and which are posited to stand in a causal relationship to the pains and pleasures one experiences in life. Described also as a “law of moral causation,” Karma places the responsibility for one’s life on the shoulders of the individual. Thus, an individual’s circumstances in life – calamity or fortune – are considered the outcome of that person’s past actions.
Determining One’s Duty: Aspects of Dharma
There are aspects of Dharma that apply to everyone (universal Dharma) and aspects that are specific to each individual (personal Dharma). In order to be in accordance with Rta, one first needs to cultivate certain universal moral principles including:
|Dhriti: Perseverance||Dhi: Reasoning|
|Kshama: Patience||Vidya: Wisdom|
|Dama: Self-control||Satya: Truthfulness|
|Shauch: Purity||Asteya: Refraining from Theft|
|Indriya Nigrah: Control of One’s Senses||Akrodha: Absence of Anger|
Such moral principles are part of the universal application of Dharma, which apply to every individual and is referred to as sadharana Dharma. This is augmented by a person’s specific Dharma, which is impacted by three factors: 1) Gunas: Individual Tendencies, 2) Ashrams: Stages of Life, and 3) Syadharma: One’s Personal Calling.
The Gunas: Tendencies of Each Individual
The concept of Gunas is based on the idea that all human beings have a mixture of three tendencies: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas.
- Sattva: Tendency towards Truth and Purity
- Rajas: Tendency towards Action
- Tamas: Tendency towards Inaction, Obstruction, or Ignorance
Gunas, or individual tendencies, are expanded upon by their application to Varnas – or groups within the Hindu social structure – based on the recognition of the difference in individual tendencies and sort all members into one of four categories. Thus, each group follows a different life path and is assigned different duties.
The Varnas: Groups Within Society
Varnas are groups within society, including Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras.
Brahmins: Priests, Scholars, and Teachers
- Predominant tendency: Sattva (Righteous and Purity)
- Duties: Control of the mind and the senses, austerity, purity, forbearance, and also uprightness, knowledge, realization, belief in a hereafter
- Action: study the Vedas, live according to Vedic principles, and share that knowledge
- Form the head of the cosmic being: As they make up the Mouth: Relay Truth
Kshatriyas: Rulers, Warriors, and Statesmen
- Predominant tendency: Rajas (Quick to take action)
- Duties: Prowess, boldness, fortitude, dexterity, and also not flying from battle, generosity and sovereignty
- Action: Protect righteousness
- Arms: Protect Truth
Vaishyas: Businessmen, Bankers, Merchants, and Farmers
- Mix of the tendencies of Sattva (Truth) and Rajas (Action)
- Duty: Agriculture and Trade
- Action: Meet the material needs of society without over indulging
- Thighs: Provide Material wealth
Shudras: Custodians, Laborers, and Service Providers
- Predominant Tendency: Tamas (Inaction)
- Duty: Service
- Action: Support the other activities of the other groups
- Feet: Provide Support
These classifications were once the basis of the Caste system in India and other nations. Based on the Caste or class someone was born into, these classifications cemented the person’s opportunities and social status. This is no longer the case in India, but it does highlight the past subjection of certain people based on their circumstances at birth. This raises the interesting question: Is one’s future predetermined at birth? Are we born with certain qualities [Gunas] which influence our life path, duties, or Dharma?
To be continued…
This is Part I of a two part series on Dharma, Duty, and Freemasonry. Readers can view the second installment here: Part II.