Ancient India, Yoga, and the Seven Chakras

Ancient India, Yoga, and the Seven Chakras

The word chakra (pronounced “shock-ra”) comes from the Sanskrit cakra, which means, “wheel.” The yoga systems of ancient India (roughly the 1st millennium BCE) conceived of the intersection between the physical body and the “ethereal,” “subtle,” or “light” body as spinning vortices of energy. Where our consciousness or life energy interpenetrates our physical body, there you will find the chakras. There are hundreds of chakras, or places of intersection, each of which can be related to acupuncture or acupressure points.

However, the Chakra System as it was introduced in about the 8th century CE in Buddhist texts such as the Hevajra Tantra, identified seven major chakras, where the energy flows intersect. The system as it is taught in the West today has been subsequently influence by Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, Japanese Buddhism, and the psychological interpretations of Carl Jung.

The seven chakras are arranged vertically, from the base of the spine to the top of the head, roughly centered through the middle of the body. In addition to corresponding toHevajrahTantra the nerves of the spinal column, they also correspond to certain glands in the endocrine system, as well as bodily functions like breathing, digestion, or procreation.

In elemental terms, these major chakras also correspond to earth, water, fire, air, sound, light, and thought. In psychological terms, the major chakras correspond to the major areas of our lives: survival and physical energy; sex and emotion; personal power and intellect; love and compassion; verbal and mental communication; psychic power and higher intuition; spirituality and enlightenment. Each chakra also has been charted with corresponding elements, goals, colors, planets, foods, basic rights, stones, animals, operating principles, yoga paths, and Jungian archetypes.


Muladhara – Root, Base, or First Chakra

This chakra is located at the base of the spine, in the area of the tailbone, encompassing the legs, feet, large intestine, supra-renal glands, and kidneys. It’s the chakra of vitality, physical energy, survival, and self-preservation. Its goals are stability, grounding, prosperity, the right livelihood, and physical health. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include: obesity, hemorrhoids, constipation, sciatica, anorexia, knee troubles, bone disorders, frequent illness in general, frequent fears, inability to focus, being “spacey,” and the inability to be still. The color of the first chakra is red; its element is Earth, and its planet is Saturn. Proteins and meats are the foods associated with this chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is the right to have what we need to survive. The stones of the first chakra are garnet, hematite, bloodstone, and lodestone, and its animals are the elephant, the ox, and the bull. This chakra’s operating principle is gravity, and its yoga path is Hatha Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the first chakra is the Earth Mother.

Svadhisthana – Sacral, or Second Chakra

This chakra is located one to two inches below the navel, and encompasses the lower abdomen, genitals, lower back, hips, digestive system, reproductive organs, and gonad glands. It’s the chakra of sexuality, the emotions, and physical creativity. Its goals are fluidity, pleasure, and relaxation. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include: stiffness, sexual problems, and emotional isolation, instability, or numbness. The color of the second chakra is orange; its element is Water, and its planet is the Moon. Liquids are associated with this chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is the right to feel – the right to express your emotions. The stones of the second chakra are coral and carnelian, and its animals are the fish and the alligator. This chakra’s operating principle is the attraction of opposites, and its yoga path is Tantra Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the second chakra is Eros.

Manipura – Solar Plexus or Third Chakra

This chakra is located in the solar plexus, the upper abdomen area below the breastbone and behind the navel that encompasses the stomach, liver, gall bladder, sympathetic nervous system, pancreas, and adrenal glands. It is the chakra of personal power and intellect, and its goals are vitality, strength of will, and purpose. Signs that this chakra is operating incorrectly include: ulcers, timidity, domination, fatigue, and digestive troubles. The color of the third chakra is yellow; its element is Fire, and its planets are Mars and the Sun. Carbohydrates are the foods associated with the third chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is the right to act in a self-directed manner. The stones 5-Types-of-Yoga-Their-Benefitsof the third chakra are topaz and amber, and its animals are the ram and the lion. This chakra’s operating principle is combustion, and its yoga path is Karma Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the third chakra is The Magician.

Anahata – The Heart or Fourth Chakra

This chakra is located in the center of the chest, encompassing the heart, thymus, circulatory system, blood, and cellular structure. It’s the chakra of love and compassion, and its goals are balance, compassion, and acceptance. Improper functioning includes the symptoms of loneliness and co-dependence. The color of the fourth chakra is green, and its element is Air. The planet associated with this chakra is Venus. Vegetables are the foods associated with the fourth chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is to love and be loved. The stones of the fourth chakra are emerald and rose quartz, and its animals are the antelope and the dove. This chakra’s operating principle is equilibrium, and its yoga path is Bhakti Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the fourth chakra is Quan Yin – The Goddess of Mercy.

Vissudha – The Throat or Fifth Chakra

This chakra is located in the neck, centered at the throat, above the collarbone, and encompasses the thyroid gland, throat and jaw areas, alimentary, canal, lungs, vocal cords, thymus, and the breath. It’s the chakra of verbal and mental communication, and intellectual creativity, and its goals are clear communication, creativity, and resonance. Signs that this chakra isn’t functioning well include sore throats, stiff neck, and poor communication. The color of the fifth chakra is bright blue. The corresponding element is Sound, and its planet is Mercury. Fruits are the foods associated with the fifth chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is to speak and hear truth. The stone of the fifth chakra is turquoise and its animals are the elephant and the bull. This chakra’s operating principle is sympathetic vibration, and its yoga path is Mantra Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the fifth chakra is Hermes.

Ajna – The Third-Eye or Sixth Chakra

This chakra is located between and about one finger’s width above the eyebrows, and encompasses the cerebellum, nose, central nervous system, the pituitary gland, and the left eye. It’s the chakra of psychic power and higher intuition, and its goals are psychic perception and imagination. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include headaches, nightmares, and hallucinations. The color of the sixth chakra is indigo, its element is Light, and its planet is Neptune. Visual beauty is the nourishment of the sixth chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is to see clearly. The stone of the sixth chakra is Lapis Lazuli, and its animals are the owl and the butterfly. This chakra’s operating principle is projection, and its yoga path is Yantra Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the sixth chakra is the Hermit, the Psychic, or the Dreamer.

Sahasrara – The Crown or Seventh Chakra

This chakra is located at the crown or top of the head, and encompasses the cerebrum, the right eye, and the pineal gland. It’s the chakra of spirituality and enlightenment, and its goals are wisdom, knowledge, and spiritual connection. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include confusion, apathy, and being overly intellectual. The color of the seventh chakra is violet. The planet Uranus is associated with this chakra, and fasting is the nourishment of the seventh. The fundamental right of the seventh chakra is to know – including the right to information, education, and truth. The stone of the seventh chakra is amethyst, and its animals are the elephant, ox, and bull. This chakra’s operating principle is Consciousness, and its yoga path is Jnana Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the seventh chakra is the Sage, or Wise Woman.

chakras-horizontal


Sources:

Judith, Anodea and Vega, Selene. The Sevenfold Journey: Reclaiming Mind, Body, & Spirit Through the Chakras. The Crossing Press, 1993.

Melody. Love Is In The Earth – The Crystal and Mineral Encyclopedia. Earth-Love Publishing House. First Edition, Second Printing, 2011.

“Chakra”. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra.

Ego and the Freemason

Ego and the Freemason

I have to say, I love my Lodge’s Study Groups. They bring up all kinds of interesting subjects in relation to all aspects of life, and more particularly, life as a Freemason. We recently discussed how Ego affects our lives, and what our particular work is as Freemasons in regards to the Ego. These study sessions give me an opportunity to explore not only my own experiences with the topic but also what I think about it objectively – form an opinion, as well as be able to articulate that opinion. Since we all have an ego, it’s easy to have experiences with it. It’s harder to form objective opinions. After all, isn’t the ego involved in forming those opinions?

One of my first college classes, as a fresh-faced 18 year old, was Psychology 101. This was predated by a class in Western Philosophy, both having an extremely big pull for me. These were classes that my high school did not offer, a whole new world of learning that was and still is exciting. We learned all about Freud and Jung’s theories of the Ego, amongst other things, but nothing really “stuck” with me after that class. I never went back and explored ego until it came up so often in religious and metaphysical studies years later. I identified most closely with Jung’s writings and I often go back to read up on him when questions of psyche were, and are, involved.

In his writing about ego, “One of Jung’s central concepts is individuation, his term for a process of personal development that involves establishing a connection between the ego and the self. The ego is the center of consciousness; the self is the center of the total psyche, including both the conscious and the unconscious.” The reference goes on to say, “For Jung, there is constant interplay between the two. They are not separate but are two aspects of a single system. Individuation is the process of developing wholeness by integrating all the various parts of the psyche.”

The most interesting part of that statement is the fact that the ego and the self are different entities that must be integrated. How did they get dis-integrated in the first place? How did something that was whole become separate yet linked, and our goal is to try to integrate the two? Is it birth that separated them? If so, what are we before? And is that the state we are trying to achieve? It makes my head spin to think that we might have been integrated in the womb (or before?) and dis-integrated at birth, and we spend our whole lives working toward re-integration. Is that the purpose of human life, to find that which was lost? What happens, then, if you integrate earlier than dying? Is that perhaps our goal? Do we evolve as a species if that happens?

Hurts your head, right?

If these are two linked-yet-separate energies, they may be difficult to identify without each other. Imagine a binary star system, two bright points of light circling each other, embracing each other as only two fiery systems of gas and elementals can – never touching and continually burning each other. Love that consumes and renews itself. Yes, that must be the ego and the self, in Jung’s world.

If the ego and the self are inseparable, then it seems to me we have to learn to live with both, separate and equal parts, calling to and screaming at one another all the time. How do we reconcile? Do we even try? Since we cannot unequivocally say where the mind resides, perhaps these two things are part of the overarching mind that controls us. If “as above, so below,” we must ask – does that Divine mind have a self and ego, too? Does the Divine even have a mind? Maybe that’s a weird question, but maybe not.

Freemasonry simultaneously chooses to subdue our egos and find our “self.” Perhaps one of the binary stars must be dominant, and in that dominance is where we find the traits of a person – arrogance or humility, graciousness or rudeness. In the balance between the stars, we find the nature of the gasses they put off. It is difficult to be of service to your fellow Masons and at the same time be immodest and arrogant. There’s little room for others when you fill the room with your ego. Perhaps that is also why we learn to subdue passions – the passions of the ego – and develop the passions of the self – the connection to the divine. One star must dim to have the other shine. The Roche Lobe of Personality.

In the past, I wondered why we, as Freemasons, pin medals on our chests and put numbers at the end of our names, or added titles when we attain certain Masonic degrees. I think this is another of those tests – do we do it for prestige? Do we wear our outward jewels as a “brag rag,” as I heard one brother call it long ago? Or do we wear them to honor the Work we’ve completed and bring to the gathering? Do we shine our ego brightly to make our “self” fade? Intent is everything and nothing; we must be clear about what the outward trappings mean in order to not fall into the trap itself, yes?  Is one degree better than another? What have we really attained? I think about these things often. I do my best to remember the duty and cautiously regard the glitter. It seems to stick to everything.

Does Masonry feed the ego? Or help one subdue it? Maybe it’s an ongoing dialogue rather than a simple, solitary question.

Is Death Necessary? Or Inevitable?

Is Death Necessary? Or Inevitable?

Death. A foregone conclusion to this life. Maybe. What does science say?

“Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me, Albert Einstein wrote in a condolence letter, upon the death of his close friend Michele Besso in 1955, “that signifies nothing. For those of us who believe in physics, the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” Einstein was on to something, according to a contemporary scientist.

A theory… a philosophy, really, called “Biocentrism,” explores this question and many other fundamental reality-based questions. Introduced in 2010 by Robert Lanza, a scientist, doctor, and “influential thinker” who felt that consciousness is a problem for not only biologists, but physicists as well. Nothing, according to Lanza, can explain the “molecules of consciousness bouncing around in our brain.”

Biocentrism is sometimes the view or belief that the rights and needs of humans are not more important than those of other living things. This is not that theory of philosophy; it is something entirely different.

The theory postulated by Lanza is that nothing exists outside of consciousness and life. Biology is the great creator. In Lanza’s view, we humans have become very good at understanding the mechanics of our universe. We look at the rotations of planets, and we know chemical properties and can explain how apples fall from trees.

What we can’t explain is why. Why does the universe work as it does? Why can we not explain yet why we have consciousness, or what we should be doing with it? Biocentrism explains the why.

“I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness.” Said Max Planck, Nobel Prize-winning physicist, “We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness.”

Lanza, with biocentrism, seeks to explain the difference between what we all perceive to be an objective reality versus a life-centric reality.

“If a tree falls in the forest, does it make a sound?”

Objective reality says, why yes, of course it does. Biocentrism reality says, not unless brainthere is an ear nearby. The science is lengthy but makes a point – without the ear to hear, the sound does not really exist. The tree falling creates puffs of air which stimulate aneardrum that translates the shift of air into a sort of sound. The sound is entirely held within our brains. The sound requires life and consciousness to comprehend it. The human must remove themselves from the equation to see the validity of the argument, and put themselves back in to understand the human place in creating the universe.

  • The First Principle of Biocentrism is that “what we perceive as reality is a process that requires our consciousness.” Or, said slightly differently, requires “any” consciousness. If I ask you, where is the universe, most might answer, “out there.” What many struggle with is that we are part of the same universe; what is out there is what is in here.                                                                                                                                                                     
  • The Second Principle of Biocentrism is that “internal and external perceptions are intertwined; they are different sides of the same coin and cannot be separated.”

In a complex explanation, Lanza says the general idea is that our brains create the reality we see. In this book, “Biocentrism: How Life and Consciousness are the Keys to Understanding the True Nature of the Universe,” Lanza explains all of this in an answer to the question: “Where is the Universe?”

In total, there are seven principles to Biocentrism, according to Lanza.

  • The most interesting one, in relation to death, is the Fourth Principle of Biocentrismwithout consciousness, “matter” dwells in an undetermined state of probability.

Any universe that could have preceded consciousness only existed in a probability state. This seems to state that we, as are in that undetermined state of probability, and that our matter never really “goes away” but is folded into and part of the ongoing reality of the universe. Our consciousness separates from matter but doesn’t cease to exist because it’s all part of the same consciousness. This reminds me of Neil Gaiman’s story, “American Gods.” Gods exist and thrive because of our consciousness of them.

Life creates the Universe. The Universe (Darwinism, the Big Bang, etc) did not create life. We’ve got it backwards.

Mind. Blown.

It seems like such a simple turn of phrase, one which everyone can identify with. Lanza brings to bear all the science and experiential anecdotes to back it up. He picks us up, biocentrism-turning-the-universe-outside-inkicking and screaming, from seeing the universe one way and to standing on our heads, viewing it another. These theories harken back to the ideals of Eastern Philosophies and Freemasonry.

Freemasons, Buddhists, and Taoists seek balance and unification, we see an understanding of nature and science, and a middle path. For the Buddhist, our consciousness allows us to connect with the One – the whole. For the Taoist, the focus is a seamless flow of life – where there are no individuals but a single existence. For the Freemason, we seek unity and harmony, and the idea that as a unit, we are also creators. None of this is incompatible with Lanza’s scientific and philosophical approach to how the universe, physics, works.

So, to the original questions: “Do we die?” and Is it inevitable?” 

According to Lanza, we are already dead, alive, past, future, and creators right now. The limitations are in our own perceptions and ideas of reality. All of it is right now because we, and all matter, are conscious. Lanza himself addressed this question in a Psychology Today article, located here.

Perhaps if more people could look at the universe from this new paradigm, we would become the creators we already are; we create and destroy together, whether we believe it or not.


  1. For a really good read, try out Lanza’s book on Biocentrism and his follow-on book, “Beyond Biocentrism.”
  2. For an interesting Buddhist view of Biocentrism, look to “The Endless Further,” a Buddhist’s blog.

Masonic Soul Food

Masonic Soul Food

“What is a Soul? What is Spirit? What is Energy?” We begin to engage in conversations about such esoteric terms as soul, energy, and spirit without being cognizant that we are not speaking the same language. The words may be the same but meanings span the spectrum. We can debate these questions all night, all month, and for the rest of our lives and never come to understanding. Do people really know what they mean when they talk about energy, soul, or spirit? While these are common discussions amongst Freemasons, they are sometimes the most difficult subjects on which to remain impartial and fair.

Humans seem to have a lot invested in the idea of their souls, and in other people’s souls, too.

Many  people join Masonic groups so they can “have an energetic experience” or “touch something mystical.” Some talk about experiencing something that touches their soul or provides a spiritual meaning to their lives. Some Freemasons mention how they “love the energy of Lodge” or how it’s our job to “raise the vibration of our material world and send out ‘healing’ energy.” Many people start their Freemasonic career looking for something mystical, something secret that only they have learned, that no one else knows, that provides them a conduit to perhaps special insight that no one else has. Because Freemasonry deals with the questions of life and death, the neophyte may be looking for Freemasonry to unlock all those special secrets and have the answers. They use terms like soul, spirit, and energy without defining them for themselves and in their communications with others.

energy1It seems that many times, the conversations are about what people want to believe rather than reasoned conclusions. Discussion and debate are the way we educate ourselves and grow. Transformation requires thought.

To those who let go of preconceived desires and wishes, Freemasonry is transformative in many ways. It does discuss these questions of life and death. It leaves the aspirant to mull over symbols and meaning and yes, come up with personal insights on perhaps souls and spirit and energy. Freemasonry provides us the opportunity to to convert from a polarizing human nature to one of balance. We need to learn to deal with all aspects of our temperament in order to understand all the features of this life – material, emotional, mental, and spiritual.  It is this last realm, spiritual, that trips many up.

Most Freemasons accept the presence of a greater power, something undefined that connects us all to a single purpose. Most would agree with the idea of the multi-faceted nature of human existence, struggling with the balance of brain, mind, body, and this idea of “connectedness.” Many have experienced things they can’t explain, the nudges of intuition, and the sudden flashes of insight that seem “deep.” These are all valid experiences. It’s taking them from the experience to meaningful communication that humans struggle. We throw out a word like “soul” or “spirit” or “energy” and assume that the people we communicate with understand what they mean. Freemasons are philosophers,  and any good philosopher will not abide a discussion with random, undefined terms. When asked about souls, there are vague allusions to something energetic, mystical, unique, and connected to some form of god/goddess/force/Tao. A soul is what makes us individuals. A soul is something that is part of God. A soul is our energetic self.  “When our eyes met, our souls touched.”

What does any of that really mean?  For each individual who speaks on these subjects, there is a different answer. Pinning people down about souls and spirits and such can be quite agitating for people. Some people get downright angry.

Can we define any of it? Perhaps. Perhaps we can start with energy.

socratesUnless you wholeheartedly dismiss science, there can be no doubt for one second that we are energetic beings. Neurons use electrical impulses and neurotransmitters (chemicals) to enable our bodies to function in its entirety: to think, feel, heal, sense, breath – everything. Without energy, our hearts would not pump, we would cease to be able to think and process information, and we would die. Mitochondria, in a weird symbiotic relationship with us, enable us to live by helping us process the material world around us into energy. Every cell has mitochondria and every cell is able to produce energy of some sort. Life is energy.

Okay, we’ve established we’re energetic beings, and by the nature of the material world, energetic beings are everywhere. We communicate with our senses and receive communication with our senses. Abraham Hicks said, “We talk with words but communicate with energy.” Cyndi Dale, author of “The Subtle Body: An Encyclopedia of your Energetic Body,” states that “energy is information that vibrates.” This latter definition is a little more trustworthy, it seems, than the former. We can test it. We can retest it. We can play with it and work to define examples. However, this is also where it gets tricky, right? Let’s take a page, well, a short paragraph from Wikipedia: “In physics, energy is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on or heat the object. It can be converted in form but not created or destroyed.”

BB_timelineWell, okay then, simple question: where did the energy that makes up us come from? Ouch, right? In a recent conversation, I posited this question to a fellow Freemason. He answered, “the stars.” I said okay, get me from B to A. He said “Stars created the elements that trapped the energy that went into making us.” I replied that I agreed, but then, what makes up the stars? He said it must be “the Big Bang.” Humans are the trapped energy of the material created during the Big Bang. To him, we all derive from the single moment that created time, matter, and energy. Physicist or philosopher, the topic of energy is where we converge. We can conclude from this that elements that make up the material world are trapped energy. Is this trapped “energy” spirit? Is that our “soul?”

If we are trapped energy of stars, as is everything around us, then we have far more in common with other matter than we think we do. If we are all made of the same matter, we should be able to recognize one another by way of transferring energy. Or, so one would think. What is interesting to note is that many psychologists and philosophers considered love to be a transference of energy. Freud dwelt on the physical aspects of love while Plato talks about spiritual or unselfish love; but one in the same, what we call love is, to them, a transference of energy. When we love something, we do put energy into it, and it into us. Perhaps this is the idea of spirit. Spirit, Plato said, that that way we communicate emotionally with other humans. Is this not love? So, love is spirit. We can also say love is energy.

So if love, life, and elements are all energy, can we draw any conclusions about the soul?

Many philosophers have tried to explain ‘soul.’ Just one example, Plotinus, the first Neo-Platonist, did his best to help us along in understanding that the soul doesn’t necessarily need a body; yet, without a body, it can’t exist in the “intelligible realms and express itself in the visible realms.” This concept tells us how he thought the soul expressed itself, but not what it is. In a very basic sense, Neoplatonists call the soul “consciousness” or “psyche.” Still, it’s unclear even in modern terms what consciousness is. If we thought defining “soul” in religion is difficult, try the philosophical bent…Truly angst-ridden. It seems that Plotinus and Plato are already agreed that there is a soul, even if they can’t agree on its definition. Maybe it’s something that we all have to debate on until we get to learn for sure. Maybe we’ll never learn for sure, at least not in this world. galaxy-wallpaper-preview-4

One solid conclusion is that the meaning of a soul does not seem to be the meaning of a soul for everyone, and spirit is not something we can agree upon, either. If nothing else, the myriad world religions would illustrate that. The phrase “our souls speak to each other” doesn’t mean much if you can’t really explain to someone else what it means. “We communicated ‘energetically’ is really worthless unless you can really understand clearly what you intend. It doesn’t even matter if you can explain it to someone else; do we even understand ourselves?  A wise Freemason once said that if you can explain something to a five-year-old, and the five-year-old gets it, then you really understand the concept of it. Simple terms, clearly defined, done. We definitely need more five-year-olds around us to keep us honest and clear.

Freemason, scientist, philosopher, or physicist: regardless of what you believe about soul, spirit, energy, or anything else esoteric, definitions are important and personal understanding moreso. The exploration of life’s meaning is, whether we agree on terms or not, something we all share.

Why are we here? Because we’re here. Roll the bones.” – Neal Peart

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