Ancient Egyptian Religion – Part II

Ancient Egyptian Religion – Part II

This is the second post of a three part series the religion of the ancient Egyptians. Part one can be read here


There has been a long debate among Egyptologists regarding the degree to which ancient Egyptians considered the Pharaoh a god. The consensus at the moment seems to be that the ancient Egyptians viewed royal authority itself as divine. Thus, while recognizing that the Pharaoh was human and subject to human weakness, the ancient Egyptians simultaneously considered him a god, because he was the incarnation of the divine power of kingship. In this role, he acted as intermediary between the people of Egypt and the gods. He was essential to upholding Ma’at, both by maintaining justice and harmony in human society, and by sustaining the gods with temples and offerings. For these Pharaoh-Thutmose-III-Luxor-Museum.jpgreasons, one of the Pharaoh’s jobs was to oversee all state religious activity.

The Pharaoh was also associated with many specific deities. He was directly identified with Horus, who represented kingship itself, and was seen as the son of Ra, ruler and regulator of nature as the Pharaoh was the ruler and regulator of society. By the New Kingdom (1550–1069 BCE) the Pharaoh was also associated with Amun, the supreme force in the cosmos. Upon his death, the Pharaoh attained full godhood. In this state, he was directly identified with Ra, and was also associated with Osiris, god of death and rebirth who was the father of Horus. Many mortuary temples were dedicated to the worship of deceased pharaohs as gods.

The Journey of the Soul

The ancient Egyptians had intricate doctrines about death and the afterlife. They believed that humans possessed a ka, or life force, which left the body at the moment of death. In life, the ka received its sustenance from food and drink, so they believed that, to live on after death, the ka must continue to receive offerings of food, whose spiritual essence it could still absorb. Each person also had a ba, which consisted of those spiritual and personality characteristics that were unique to each individual. Unlike the ka, the ba BaKaAkhstayed attached to the body after death.

Egyptian funeral rituals were designed to release the ba from the body so that it could move freely, and to rejoin it with the ka so that, together, they could become the akh (meaning “magically effective one”), which they conceived of as mind as a living entity. Nevertheless, it was also important that the body of the deceased be preserved, as the ancient Egyptians believed that the ba returned to its body each night to renew itself, before emerging in the morning as part of the akh.

In early times, ancient Egyptians believed the deceased pharaoh ascended to the sky and dwelled among the stars. However, over the course of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BC), he came to be more closely linked with the daily rebirth of the sun god Ra and with the underworld ruler Osiris, as those deities grew more important.

By the time the New Kingdom rolled around, ancient Egyptians believed that the ka and the ba had to escape an assortment of supernatural perils in the Duat (the realm of the dead), before submitting to a final judgment, known as the “Weighing of the Heart,” WeighingoftheHeartcarried out by Osiris and the Assessors of Ma’at.

This judgment consisted of, the gods comparing the actions of the deceased while alive (symbolized by the heart) to Ma’at, to determine whether he or she had behaved in accordance with the principles of Ma’at. If the deceased was judged worthy, his or her ka and ba were united into an akh. There were several coexisting beliefs about the destination of the akh. Frequently, the worthy dead were said to dwell in the realm of Osiris, a lush and pleasing land in the underworld. The solar vision of the afterlife, in which the deceased akh traveled with Ra on his daily journey, was still associated with royalty, for the most part, but could be extended to others as well. Over the course of the Middle and New Kingdoms, the notion that the akh could also visit the world of the living, and magically affect events there to a certain degree, became increasingly widespread.

Myth of Osiris, Isis, and Horus

The most important of all ancient Egyptian myths was the story of Osiris and Isis. It is the tale of the divine ruler Osiris, who was murdered by his jealous brother, Set, a god often identified with the forces of chaos. Osiris’ sister and wife, Isis, resurrected him so thatEyeofHorusPillars they could conceive an heir: Horus. Osiris then entered the underworld and became the ruler of the dead.

After he grew up, Horus fought and defeated Set to become king himself. The association of Set with chaos, and the identification of Osiris and Horus as the rightful divine rulers, provided a rationale for the succession of Pharaohs and set up the Pharaohs as the upholders of order. At the same time, the death and subsequent rebirth of Osiris was connected to the Egyptian agricultural cycle, in which crops grew in the wake of the flooding of the Nile, and also provided a template for the resurrection of the human ka and ba after death.

Another important motif in ancient Egyptian myth was the journey of Ra through the Duat each night. During the course of this journey, Ra would meet with Osiris, who served as an agent of regeneration, so that his life was renewed. Ra would also battle each night with Apep – a serpentine god that represented chaos. The defeat of Apep and the meeting with Osiris would ensure the rising of the sun the next morning, a daily event that symbolized rebirth and the victory of order over chaos.

Importance of Funerary Texts

Among the most notable and thoroughly preserved Egyptian writings are funerary texts designed to ensure that the deceased made it to a pleasant afterlife. The earliest of these are the Pyramid Texts. They are a loose collection of hundreds of spells, inscribed on the walls of royal pyramids during the Old Kingdom, which were intended to magically provide pharaohs with the methods by which they could take their place in the company of the gods in the afterlife. The spells appear in differing arrangements and combinations, and a handful of them appear in all of the pyramids.

EgyptainBookoftheDead

At the end of the Old Kingdom a new group of funerary spells, which included material from the Pyramid Texts, began to appear in tombs, but these were primarily inscribed on coffins. This collection of writings, known as the Coffin Texts, was not reserved for royalty, but turned up in the tombs of non-royal officials. In the New Kingdom, various new funerary texts emerged, of which the most well known is the Book of the Dead. Unlike the earlier texts, it frequently features extensive illustrations, or little scenes. The Book of the Dead was copied on papyrus and sold to the common people to be placed in their tombs.

The Coffin Texts included sections with detailed descriptions of the underworld, along with instructions on how to overcome its dangers. In the New Kingdom, this material inspired a number of “books of the underworld,” including the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns, and the Amduat. Unlike the previous loose collections of spells, these underworld books are organized portrayals of Ra’s passage through the Duat, and through metaphor, the journey of the deceased’s ka and ba through the realm of the dead. These texts were originally restricted to the tombs of pharaohs, but in the Third Intermediate Period (1069–744 BCE) their use was widespread.

To be continued…

Ancient Egyptian Religion – Part I

Ancient Egyptian Religion – Part I

For the ancient Egyptians, religion wasn’t something they did once a week or on designated holidays. They believed that their deities were part of and responsible for all the natural forces around them. Those natural forces included the weather, the elements, animals, plants, and places. The ancient Egyptians worshipped or acknowledged over one thousand deities. Many of these deities were local to specific regions of the country, but many were universally known. As the Egyptians came in contact with other civilizations, some deities were added to their pantheon. Egyptian pharaohs were also routinely elevated to deity status, and particularly distinguished individuals were sometimes accorded that honor as well.

Most religions have creation myths and the ancient Egyptians were no exception. They referred to this event as the Zep Tepi, which means “the first occasion.” Ancient Egyptian Zeb Tepi myths differ depending on the major city of a region, but they all have in common the idea that the world arose out of the primeval waters of chaos, personified by the god Nu. Another common feature is a pyramid-shaped mound, called the benben, which was the first thing to emerge from chaos.

The sun was also intimately interwoven with creation, and it was believed to have first risen from the benben, personified by the overall sun god Ra or as the god Khepri, who represented the newly risen sun. There were many versions of the first appearance ofAncientEgyptain Religion2 the sun; it either emerged directly from the benben itself, or from a lotus flower that grew there, taking the form of a heron, falcon, scarab beetle, or human child.

Another common variant of Egyptian cosmogonies, and those of other cultures, is the cosmic egg, which is either a substitute for the waters of chaos or the benben. One version of the cosmic egg variant has the sun god hatching from the egg created by the deities of the Ogdoad, or produced by the Chaos Goose and the Chaos Gander.

The creation myth taught in the city of Hermopolis concentrated on the nature of the universe before the world was created. The substance and qualities of the primeval waters were personified by a set of eight gods, called the Ogdoad. The god Nu and his female counterpart Naunet represented the primordial watery abyss itself; Huh and his counterpart Hauhet represented the water’s infinite chaos; Kek and Kauket personified the primordial darkness within it; and Amun and Amaunet represented its hidden and unknowable nature. According to the myth, the eight gods were originally divided into male and female groups. As they dwelled within the primordial waters, they were symbolically depicted as aquatic creatures: the males were represented as frogs, and the females were represented as snakes. These two groups eventually converged, resulting in a great upheaval, which produced the benben. From the benben emerged the sun, which rose into the sky to illuminate the world.

In Heliopolis, creation of the world was attributed to Atum, a deity closely associated with Ra, who was believed to have existed in the waters of Nu as an inert potential being. Atum started by creating himself, and became the source of all the elements and forces in the world. Atum then formed the air and wind god Shu and his sister Tefnut, goddess of moisture, moist air, dew, and rain. Next, Shu and Tefnut coupled to produce the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, who defined the limits of the world between them. Geb and Nut in turn gave rise to four children, who represented the forces of life: Osiris, god of fertility and regeneration; Isis, goddess of motherhood; Set, the god of chaos; and AncientEgyptain Religion3Nephthys, the female complement of Set. These nine gods (and sometimes Horus) were grouped together theologically as the Ennead.

The version of the creation myth found in Memphis centered on Ptah, who was the patron god of craftsmen. As such, he represented the craftsman’s ability to envision a finished product, and shape the raw materials to create that product. Memphite theology held that Ptah created the world in a similar manner. Unlike the other Egyptian creation myths, this was not a physical but an intellectual creation by the Word and the Thought of Ptah. The ideas developed within Ptah’s heart (regarded by the Egyptians as the seat of human thought, rather than the brain) were given form when he named them with his tongue. By speaking these names, Ptah produced the gods and all other things. This Memphite creation myth managed to coexist with that of Heliopolis, because Ptah’s creative thought and speech were believed to have caused the formation of Atum and thus the Ennead.

Theban theology held that Amun was not merely a member of the Ogdoad, but the hidden force behind all things. Thebans conflated all aspects of creation into the personality of Amun, believing that he transcends all other deities. One Theban myth equated Amun’s act of creation to the call of a goose, which broke the stillness of the primordial waters and caused the formation of the Ogdoad and the Ennead. Amun was considered separate from the world, his true nature concealed even from the other gods. At the same time, because he was the ultimate source of creation, all the deities, including the other creators, were merely aspects of Amun. Due to this belief, and to the fact that Thebes was the capital of Egypt for such a long time, Amun eventually became the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon, fusing with Ra to become Ammun-Ra.

The ancient Egyptian view of the universe centered around Ma’at, a word that encompasses several concepts in English, among them “truth”, “justice”, and “order.” Ancient Egyptians saw Ma’at as the fixed, eternal order of the universe, both in the cosmos and in human society. They believed that it had existed since the creation of the world, and without Ma’at the world would lose coherence. Ancient Egyptians believed that the forces of disorder were constantly threatening Ma’at, and thus all of society was needed to maintain it. On the human level this meant that all members of society need to cooperate and coexist; on the cosmic level it meant that all of the forces of nature – which, for the ancient Egyptians, meant their deities – should continue to function in balance. This latter objective was central to Egyptian religion. The Egyptians sought toIsis-goddess-Egyptian-mythology preserve Ma’at in the cosmos by sustaining their deities through offerings, and by performing rituals that forestalled disorder and perpetuated the cycles of nature.

The most important aspect of the ancient Egyptian view of the cosmos was the way they conceived of time, which was extremely concerned with the maintenance of Ma’at. Throughout the linear passage of time, a cyclical pattern recurred, in which Ma’at was renewed by periodic events that echoed the original creation. Among these events were the annual flooding of the Nile, and the succession from one king to another – but the most important was the daily journey of the sun god Ra.

When pondering the shape of the cosmos, the ancient Egyptians saw the earth as a flat expanse of land, personified by the god Geb, over which arched the sky goddess Nut. Shu, the god of air, separated these two deities of land and sky. Beneath the earth was a parallel underworld and undersky, and beyond the skies was the infinite expanse of Nu, the chaos that had existed before the creation of the world. The ancient Egyptians also believed in a place called the Duat, the land of the dead, which was located either in the underworld or in the sky. Each day, Ra traveled over the earth across the underside of the sky, and at night he passed through the Duat to be reborn at dawn.

In ancient Egyptian belief, the cosmos was inhabited by three kinds of sentient beings. The first were the deities; the second were the spirits of deceased human beings, who existed in the divine realm and possessed many of the deities’ abilities. The third were living humans, and the most important among them was the pharaoh, whose role was to bridge the human and divine realms.

To be continued…

Buddhism: A Primer

Buddhism: A Primer

Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world. It is also one of the most ancient. Buddhism has it origins in the person of Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince who seemed to have everything – a loving wife, an adorable infant son, and a kingdom he would someday inherit.

However, Siddhartha was not happy, because he had come into contact with all manner of human suffering, and saw how fickle fortune can be, and how even the wealthy and powerful still endure sickness, old age, and death. The Vedic Brahmanism of the time was not providing the answers he was seeking, so he left his wife, child, and kingdom, and turned to increasingly rigorous forms of asceticism – the practice of renouncing material possessions, physical pleasures, and most forms (even all forms) of food and drink. During this time he also studied with two masters of yogic meditation. After six years of this, Siddhartha realized that extreme deprivationBuddha-Weekly-Shakyamuni-under-bodhi-tree-Buddhism wasn’t going to help him reach enlightenment any better than the posh life he had before.

At that point, he decided to get a bath, have a meal, and meditate in a comfortable spot under a sacred fig tree – now known as a Bodhi tree – vowing not to get up until he had attained enlightenment. Forty-nine days later (or after one night full of demons and temptations, depending on which early Buddhist text you read), he finally reached Nirvana (“blowing out,” “quenching,” release from the cycle of rebirth). He then became known as Gautama Buddha, Shakyamuni Buddha, and simply Buddha.

What came to Buddha under the Bodhi tree was what would become the basic foundation of Buddhism – ending attachment to that which is impermanent, which produces karma (action driven by intention which leads to future consequences), which in turn keeps us caught in the endless cycle of birth, suffering, death, and rebirth. This ending is accomplished by embracing The Four Noble Truths and The Eight-fold Path.


The Four Noble Truths

1. The Truth of Suffering: Life is full of that which upsets us, from natural disasters, to illness, to aggravating mothers-in-law.

2. The Cause of Suffering: Our reaction to events or circumstances, our interpretations and perceptions, and how we deal with it all. Our attachment to things or outcomes, our desire for life to be other than what it is

3. The End of Suffering: Letting it all go, relinquishing the attachment.

4. The Path that Frees us from Suffering (or how to actually manage to let it all go):Becoming aware of our illusions, our ways of thinking, the ruts we’re in, and our Eightfold-Path-final-webunrealistic expectations, which is made possible by following the Eightfold Path.

The Eight-fold Path

1. Right View: Acceptance of the fundamental teachings.

2. Right Resolve: Having a positive, constructive outlook. Freeing your mind from ill will, cruelty, and lust.

3. Right Speech: Constructive, productive, honest, sincere speech. Avoiding abusive, idle, or divisive speech.

4. Right Action: No intentional killing, no stealing, no sexual misconduct.

5. Right Livelihood: Avoiding professions that harm or cheat others, like slavery, trafficking, weapons dealing, shady business dealings, etc.

6. Right Effort: Avoiding distractions, overcoming laziness, lack of sleep (or avoiding being sleepy in the first place), checking your attitude at the door, etc.

7. Right Mindfulness: Being aware of what you’re feeling, thinking, and doing at all times.

8. Right Concentration: Cultivating clarity and heightened alertness of mind.


Buddha would spend the next forty-five years teaching others what he had learned. He formed a monastic community that eventually included women in his lifetime. He and his monks and nuns traveled all over Nepal and rest of the Indian subcontinent. Buddha died at age 80, sometime between 486 and 368 BCE, depending on whether you are using the corrected long chronology, modern scholar consensus, or the short (Indian)elorabuddha chronology.

After Gautama Buddha died, his monastic community chugged along quietly, writing things down and going about the business of establishing a religion. Historical evidence suggests that Buddhism was a minor but accepted religion, until the 3rd century BCE, when Ashoka the Great, the Mauryan Emperor, took an interest. The Mauryan Empire at that time encompassed what are now the countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nepal, and part of Iran.

When Emperor Ashoka saw the devastation caused by his annexation of Kalinga, he began to feel remorse, and became a follower of Buddhism. His royal patronage enabled Buddhism to spread more quickly all over the empire, down to Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and even all the way to what is now Libya. This is due to the fact that this was the Hellenistic Period, when the empire of the late Alexander the Great was still in Greek hands, allowing Ashoka to sponsor Buddhist emissaries all over the Hellenistic world.

Around this time (150-100 BCE), Buddhism, which had several little offshoots by now, developed a major branch. This branch was known as Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Buddhism and, unlike the original Theravada, emphasized the Bodhisattva path, which seeks to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings, and holds that PeaceBuddhaenlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime, and can even be achieved by a layperson, not just a member of the monastic community.

By the 1st century CE, Buddhism had moved all the way up Central Asia and snaked over to China. Vajrayana Buddhism, also called Mantrayāna, Tantric, and Esoteric Buddhism, developed during the 4-6th century CE. It featured new practices such as the use of mantras, dharanis, mudras, and mandalas, as well as the visualization of deities and Buddhas, and developed a new class of literature, known as the Buddhist Tantras. Vajrayana is a variant that some consider to be a sub branch of Mahayana Buddhism, while others think it’s a completely separate branch. While Vietnam, Korea, and Southeast Asia had Buddhism several centuries earlier, it didn’t arrive in Japan until the 6th century CE. The 7th century saw Buddhism finally arrive in Tibet with a mixture of equal parts Mahayana and Vajrayana ending up as the dominant form. Tibet was a theocratic state, headed by its spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.

Although India was the birthplace of Buddhism, Muslim incursions, and the growth of Hinduism – which had added the Buddha to their seemingly endless list of gods – cause it to all but disappear.

In the modern era, the colonization of Asian Buddhist countries by Western states weakened the traditional political structures that supported the Buddhist religion and subjected it to criticism and competition from the Christianity those states brought withIntelligentPeopleIgnore them. Other significant pressures have come from communism, the growth of capitalism, large-scale wars, and regional conflicts. In 1950, a Chinese communist invasion forced Tibet’s 14th Dalai Lama to feel the country, and eventually establish a Tibetan exile community at Dharamsala in India.

The Tibetan diaspora is also helping to spread Tibetan Buddhism in the United States, helped along by the popularity of the still-exiled 14th Dalai Lama, who has mastered the art of throwing gentle, elegant shade. Other forms of Buddhism have been finding homes in English-speaking countries since the 19th century, powered by intellectuals from the Theosophical Society, as well as, well-known Hollywood performers. From its humble beginnings, Buddhism has truly become a worldwide religion.


Sources

“History of Buddhism.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Buddhism

“Gautama Buddha.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha

“Buddhism.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism

Thorpe, Charley Linden. “Four Noble Truths.” 12, April 2017, Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.ancient.eu/Four_Noble_Truths/

Violatti, Christian. “Siddhartha Gautama.” 9, December 2013, Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.ancient.eu/Siddhartha_Gautama/

Violatti, Christian. “Buddhism.” 20, May 2014, Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.ancient.eu/buddhism/

Ancient India, Yoga, and the Seven Chakras

Ancient India, Yoga, and the Seven Chakras

The word chakra (pronounced “shock-ra”) comes from the Sanskrit cakra, which means, “wheel.” The yoga systems of ancient India (roughly the 1st millennium BCE) conceived of the intersection between the physical body and the “ethereal,” “subtle,” or “light” body as spinning vortices of energy. Where our consciousness or life energy interpenetrates our physical body, there you will find the chakras. There are hundreds of chakras, or places of intersection, each of which can be related to acupuncture or acupressure points.

However, the Chakra System as it was introduced in about the 8th century CE in Buddhist texts such as the Hevajra Tantra, identified seven major chakras, where the energy flows intersect. The system as it is taught in the West today has been subsequently influence by Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, Japanese Buddhism, and the psychological interpretations of Carl Jung.

The seven chakras are arranged vertically, from the base of the spine to the top of the head, roughly centered through the middle of the body. In addition to corresponding toHevajrahTantra the nerves of the spinal column, they also correspond to certain glands in the endocrine system, as well as bodily functions like breathing, digestion, or procreation.

In elemental terms, these major chakras also correspond to earth, water, fire, air, sound, light, and thought. In psychological terms, the major chakras correspond to the major areas of our lives: survival and physical energy; sex and emotion; personal power and intellect; love and compassion; verbal and mental communication; psychic power and higher intuition; spirituality and enlightenment. Each chakra also has been charted with corresponding elements, goals, colors, planets, foods, basic rights, stones, animals, operating principles, yoga paths, and Jungian archetypes.


Muladhara – Root, Base, or First Chakra

This chakra is located at the base of the spine, in the area of the tailbone, encompassing the legs, feet, large intestine, supra-renal glands, and kidneys. It’s the chakra of vitality, physical energy, survival, and self-preservation. Its goals are stability, grounding, prosperity, the right livelihood, and physical health. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include: obesity, hemorrhoids, constipation, sciatica, anorexia, knee troubles, bone disorders, frequent illness in general, frequent fears, inability to focus, being “spacey,” and the inability to be still. The color of the first chakra is red; its element is Earth, and its planet is Saturn. Proteins and meats are the foods associated with this chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is the right to have what we need to survive. The stones of the first chakra are garnet, hematite, bloodstone, and lodestone, and its animals are the elephant, the ox, and the bull. This chakra’s operating principle is gravity, and its yoga path is Hatha Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the first chakra is the Earth Mother.

Svadhisthana – Sacral, or Second Chakra

This chakra is located one to two inches below the navel, and encompasses the lower abdomen, genitals, lower back, hips, digestive system, reproductive organs, and gonad glands. It’s the chakra of sexuality, the emotions, and physical creativity. Its goals are fluidity, pleasure, and relaxation. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include: stiffness, sexual problems, and emotional isolation, instability, or numbness. The color of the second chakra is orange; its element is Water, and its planet is the Moon. Liquids are associated with this chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is the right to feel – the right to express your emotions. The stones of the second chakra are coral and carnelian, and its animals are the fish and the alligator. This chakra’s operating principle is the attraction of opposites, and its yoga path is Tantra Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the second chakra is Eros.

Manipura – Solar Plexus or Third Chakra

This chakra is located in the solar plexus, the upper abdomen area below the breastbone and behind the navel that encompasses the stomach, liver, gall bladder, sympathetic nervous system, pancreas, and adrenal glands. It is the chakra of personal power and intellect, and its goals are vitality, strength of will, and purpose. Signs that this chakra is operating incorrectly include: ulcers, timidity, domination, fatigue, and digestive troubles. The color of the third chakra is yellow; its element is Fire, and its planets are Mars and the Sun. Carbohydrates are the foods associated with the third chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is the right to act in a self-directed manner. The stones 5-Types-of-Yoga-Their-Benefitsof the third chakra are topaz and amber, and its animals are the ram and the lion. This chakra’s operating principle is combustion, and its yoga path is Karma Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the third chakra is The Magician.

Anahata – The Heart or Fourth Chakra

This chakra is located in the center of the chest, encompassing the heart, thymus, circulatory system, blood, and cellular structure. It’s the chakra of love and compassion, and its goals are balance, compassion, and acceptance. Improper functioning includes the symptoms of loneliness and co-dependence. The color of the fourth chakra is green, and its element is Air. The planet associated with this chakra is Venus. Vegetables are the foods associated with the fourth chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is to love and be loved. The stones of the fourth chakra are emerald and rose quartz, and its animals are the antelope and the dove. This chakra’s operating principle is equilibrium, and its yoga path is Bhakti Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the fourth chakra is Quan Yin – The Goddess of Mercy.

Vissudha – The Throat or Fifth Chakra

This chakra is located in the neck, centered at the throat, above the collarbone, and encompasses the thyroid gland, throat and jaw areas, alimentary, canal, lungs, vocal cords, thymus, and the breath. It’s the chakra of verbal and mental communication, and intellectual creativity, and its goals are clear communication, creativity, and resonance. Signs that this chakra isn’t functioning well include sore throats, stiff neck, and poor communication. The color of the fifth chakra is bright blue. The corresponding element is Sound, and its planet is Mercury. Fruits are the foods associated with the fifth chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is to speak and hear truth. The stone of the fifth chakra is turquoise and its animals are the elephant and the bull. This chakra’s operating principle is sympathetic vibration, and its yoga path is Mantra Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the fifth chakra is Hermes.

Ajna – The Third-Eye or Sixth Chakra

This chakra is located between and about one finger’s width above the eyebrows, and encompasses the cerebellum, nose, central nervous system, the pituitary gland, and the left eye. It’s the chakra of psychic power and higher intuition, and its goals are psychic perception and imagination. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include headaches, nightmares, and hallucinations. The color of the sixth chakra is indigo, its element is Light, and its planet is Neptune. Visual beauty is the nourishment of the sixth chakra. The fundamental right of this chakra is to see clearly. The stone of the sixth chakra is Lapis Lazuli, and its animals are the owl and the butterfly. This chakra’s operating principle is projection, and its yoga path is Yantra Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the sixth chakra is the Hermit, the Psychic, or the Dreamer.

Sahasrara – The Crown or Seventh Chakra

This chakra is located at the crown or top of the head, and encompasses the cerebrum, the right eye, and the pineal gland. It’s the chakra of spirituality and enlightenment, and its goals are wisdom, knowledge, and spiritual connection. Signs that this chakra is not functioning well include confusion, apathy, and being overly intellectual. The color of the seventh chakra is violet. The planet Uranus is associated with this chakra, and fasting is the nourishment of the seventh. The fundamental right of the seventh chakra is to know – including the right to information, education, and truth. The stone of the seventh chakra is amethyst, and its animals are the elephant, ox, and bull. This chakra’s operating principle is Consciousness, and its yoga path is Jnana Yoga. The Jungian archetype associated with the seventh chakra is the Sage, or Wise Woman.

chakras-horizontal


Sources:

Judith, Anodea and Vega, Selene. The Sevenfold Journey: Reclaiming Mind, Body, & Spirit Through the Chakras. The Crossing Press, 1993.

Melody. Love Is In The Earth – The Crystal and Mineral Encyclopedia. Earth-Love Publishing House. First Edition, Second Printing, 2011.

“Chakra”. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra.

The Summer Solstice

The Summer Solstice

The Summer Solstice, which is also commonly known as Midsummer, takes place when one of the Earth’s poles reaches maximum tilt towards the Sun. In the Northern hemisphere, this occurs when the Sun enters Cancer, somewhere around June 21st. In the Southern hemisphere, it occurs when the Sun enters Capricorn, somewhere around December 21st. As a result of this tilt, the Summer Solstice is the longest day of the year.

Human beings have been marking the Summer Solstice for a very, very long time. In Wiltshire, England, from the vantage point of the middle of the stone circle at the famous Bronze Age site of Stonehenge, the sun rises directly over the Heel Stone. At Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, a dagger of light appear to pierce the heart of theNewmexico petroglyph’s spiral. The Greek Antikythera mechanism which, depending on which set of scientists you ask, has been dated anywhere from 250 to 60 BCE, is a marvelous piece of engineering that was used to track, among other dates, the Summer Solstice and the start of the Olympic Games.

Today’s Druids celebrate the Summer Solstice with the festival of Alban Hefin, which means “The Light of the Shore.” For them, the seashore is a place between the worlds, where Sky, Sea, and Earth meet. They view the Summer Solstice as an expression of that liminality, because while the Sun God is at His strongest, His strength is also declining, and the days will grow shorter.

Ancient Druids gathered mistletoe from oak groves at high noon on the Summer Solstice. Mistletoe does not have berries in the summer, and in that form it was prized for its powers of protection. In order to ensure that none of this protective power was lost, Druids would spread or hold white linen under each tree so that the mistletoe would not Lithafall directly on the earth and send the power into the ground.

Wiccans and similarly oriented Pagans refer to the Summer Solstice as Litha. Named after the Anglo-Saxon grain goddess, Litha celebrates the fertile powers of nature at their highest point. It is a time for feasting, swimming, bonfires, and even fireworks. As the Summer Solstice represents the marriage of heaven and Earth, it is also a popular time for Pagan weddings, complete with couples “jumping the fire” to cement their vows. One ancient tradition that is being revived in some areas is the ritual of driving livestock through the dying embers of the Midsummer fire, though with the safety precaution of actually having two smaller fires with a path between to lead the animals through.

Among the metaphysically inclined, one common belief about the Summer Solstice is that it is one of those times of the year when the “veil” between the living human world and the Otherworld becomes thinner. In particular, many stories of humans entering the world of the faeries, or sightings of faeries in the human world, occur at Midsummer. Perhaps some of these stories – or sightings of his own – inspired William Shakespeare toA-Midsummer-Nights-Dream_859_ write A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

The Summer Solstice is a traditional time to gather herbs for purpose of protection, both for homes and animals. Boughs of rowan can be hung over entrances to stables, barns, chicken coops, sheep and goat enclosures, etc. – to protect the animals from disease or harm caused by evil magick. By the same token, a sprig of rowan hung over a pet’s favorite spot would confer the same special protection. Rue is considered protective against disease and poison, though it is poisonous itself when ingested in sufficient quantities. In Italy, rue was considered such an important herb that jewelry makers would make silver replicas of it to act as protection against the Evil Eye. In England, rue was believed to confer protection against faerie enchantments.

In one of many attempts by the Church to eradicate Pagan practices over the years, June 24th was designated “St. John’s Day,” in hopes that it would replace Summer Solstice celebrations. This is how St. John’s Wort, another herb traditionally gathered at johns2Midsummer, came by its name. St. John’s Wort flowers around the Summer Solstice, and those flowers are a cheerful, sunny yellow. In addition to making a lovely yellow dye, St. John’s Wort is also credited with the ability to bind spirits wherever it is hung.

Vervain is another herb that is traditionally gathered at the Summer Solstice. Vervain is believed to have the power to purify and to banish evil and negativity. Lavender is also gathered at this time and is used to make incense for Summer Solstice rites. Fern seeds, which are really spores still attached to the leaf and worn in the shoe, were once believed to make the wearer invisible. Today, the root of the male fern, with leaves intact, is dried over the Summer Solstice fire to create the “lucky hand” amulet.

In the East Anglian Tradition, the Summer Solstice is the seventh of the eight festivals of the natural year, which are celebrations of what Nigel Pennick calls “The Stations of the Year.” These stations express the round of life, death, and rebirth that is such an integral part of the agricultural cycle. At the same time, they are also a way of exploring the metaphysical questions of life, death, and the path to spiritual enlightenment. In this tradition, the stations are as follows:

Station Festival Event Agricultural Cycle
1 None (it’s a mystery) Death/rebirth Plant produces seed and dies.
2 Autumnal Equinox Calling/summoning Fruit ripens/harvest.
3 Samhain (October 31) Awakening Letting go, seed is released.
4 Yule Enlightenment Rebirth of the spark of life in the seed.
5 Vernal Equinox Reconciliation Seed, apparently dead, comes back to life.
6 Beltane (May 1) Mystic union Plant grows in harmony with environment.
7 Midsummer Sanctification Flower opens and is fertilized.
8 Lammas (August 1) Completion The circle turns.

Druids, Wiccans, and Celtic-centered Pagans have a slightly different approach to observing the overarching cycle of the natural world. They refer to it as “The Wheel of the Year,” and conceive of the cycle as follows:

Festival Event Agricultural Cycle
Samhuinn (October 31) Ending and beginning of the year. Remembering and contacting the honored dead. The final harvest; livestock who won’t be overwintered are slaughtered.
Winter Solstice (Alban Arthan) Death and rebirth. Death of the Holly King and rebirth of the Oak King. Longest night of the year.
Imbolc (February 2) Honoring the Mother Goddess. First faint signs of spring, lambs are born (in some climates).
Spring Equinox (Alban Eilir, Eostre) Celebrating the Resurrection of the God, light overpowering darkness. Equal day and night; flowers begin to appear; first seeds are planted.
Beltane (May 1) Celebrating the Fertility of the Land. Spring is in full bloom.
Summer Solstice (Alban Hefin) Celebrating the union of heaven and Earth. Longest day of the year.
Lughnasadh (August 1) Giving thanks to the Goddess. First harvest, particularly of grain.
Autumnal Equinox (Alban Elfed, Mabon) Giving thanks to the Goddess, and preparing for the return of the dark. Equal day and equal night. Second harvest, particularly of fruit.

Although the Summer Solstice occupies the seventh spot in the Stations of the Year, and the fourth spot in the most common Wheel of the Year, its essential significance is the same in both calendars. The Summer Solstice is a time to celebrate the light when it’s at its strongest, when exuberant growth is at its height. At the same time, we are reminded that the light will begin to wane thereafter, and that we would do well to consider the nature of our spiritual harvest.

 


Sources:

Campanelli, Pauline. Ancient Ways: Reclaiming Pagan Traditions. First Edition, Second Printing, Llewellyn, 1992.

Zell-Ravenheart, Oberon. Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard. New Page, 2004.

Pennick, Nigel. The Pagan Book of Days. Destiny, 1992.

Huson, Paul. Mastering Witchcraft. Perigee, 1970.

“Summer Solstice.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summer_solstice.

“Archaeoastronomy.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeoastronomy.

“Antikythera mechanism.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antikythera_mechanism.

“Summer Solstice – Alban Hefin.” The Order of Bards, Ovates, and Druids. https://www.druidry.org/druid-way/teaching-and-practice/druid-festivals/summer-solstice-alban-hefin

“The Eightfold Wheel Of The Year & The Druid Festivals.” The Order of Bards, Ovates, and Druids. https://www.druidry.org/druid-way/teaching-and-practice/druid-festivals/eightfold-wheel-year-druid-festivals